On ‘Infringe,’ ‘Encroach,’ and ‘Impinge’


‘Invasion’ vs ‘Encroachment’: Matters of Persons and Property

Verb violate means violating the rights of others, often in a gradual but clearly identifiable manner. For example, you can infringe another person’s trademark or copyright by using their protected work for yourself.

A federal appeals court affirmed a 2018 ruling that a Chinese company violate on a number of patents held by Aspen Aerogels Inc. — Lisa Eckelbecker, Worcester Telegraph & GazetteAugust 29, 2019

And of course, violate found most famously in the text of the 2nd Amendment to the United States Constitution: “…the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.”

violate close in meaning to encroachmentand in fact encroachment is part of the dictionary definition for violate. ARRIVE encroachment means “to step by step or sneak into the property or rights of others” or “to push beyond the usual or appropriate limits.” While violate tend to focus on one’s individual rights, encroachment often used in a property or territorial context, as in “closed country, encroachment in our beach volleyball game.”

County officials say erosion is harming wildlife habitat and encroachment on the grounds of the park. Erosion has caused sediment pollution downstream and endangers visitors to the park. —Jack Jacobs, Virginia GazetteSeptember 18, 2019

These words have a lot of overlap, so it usually doesn’t matter if you use one instead of the other. However, sometimes you can see violate And encroachment combine to create a third word: increase. There is little evidence of use of increase in print, but it seems to occur with slightly more frequency in spoken English.

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What about ‘Impinge’?

Another word added to the mix is impactmeans “to strike or dash, especially on impact” or “to have effect: to make an impression.”

James Park runs JPA Design, a London-based company specializing in aircraft interiors. His team is currently working on a chair with a fixed back that won’t impact on the rear passenger, even when it reclines. — Mark Elwood, Tourists Conde NastAugust 28, 2019

The fight for public art in Savannah has faced red tape, specifically the ordinance for historic downtown monuments. But, Edminster reminded, Starland is outside of the National Historic District. “I don’t want to impact downtown, so that’s why I think we’ll try to focus on Starland County,” he said. — Connecting SavannahSeptember 18, 2019

collide can also mean “intrusive” or “encroachment”, and that usage is established enough to be included in the dictionary:

Judge Lawrence Piersol wrote in an order Wednesday: “The government has a substantial interest in criminalizing participation in riots by acts of force or violence. But the three laws “go beyond that proper interest and … do impact to protected speech and other expression and the right to association.” — Fast City Magazine (SD)September 18, 2019

Categories: Usage Notes
Source: vothisaucamau.edu.vn

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